The objective of this contract is twofold: First, to assess the feasibility of CIE as an advantageous evaluation method of ESF interventions, used at EU level, relying on data collected at national level. It is to learn about the potential of the available data and judge whether CIE could be used more, to identify obstacles and propose ways to overcome them, notably as regards access to data registers, and explore how CIE could be used directly by the Commission to reach solid conclusions about the ESF effectiveness and sustainability of results. And it is to assess if some benchmarking can be made at all for similar operations, at least within the same country. Second, based on the previous analysis, the aim is to carry out a pilot exercise in a limited number of Member States on the sustainability and effectiveness of 2014-2020 ESF spending for participants. It is to assess by means of CIE whether the ESF has a lasting impact and the extent to which observed outcomes can be considered an effect of the ESF programme.